Azoospermia: semen contains no sperm

Azoospermia refers to the absence of sperm in the semen (WHO 1999). In the infertile male population, the rate of azoospermia is 8%-10%, and in the general population, it is about 1%.


Azoospermia refers to the absence of sperm in three consecutive semen centrifugation examinations, and it is necessary to rule out the diagnosis without ejaculation and retrograde ejaculation. Azoospermia is an extreme condition of male infertility.


  1. Testicular azoospermia: azoospermia caused by sperm dysfunction. Causes of sperm dysfunction are Klinefelter syndrome, bilateral cryptorchidism, long-term consumption of crude cottonseed oil, mumps orchitis, Varicocele, radiation damage, endocrine disorders, etc.
  2. Obstructive azoospermia: is a common cause of male infertility caused by congenital anomalies, or iatrogenic injury. Simultaneous microsurgical vasal reconstruction is a treatment method used for obstructive azoospermia.
  3. Primary testicular insufficiency: Mainly caused due to genetic defects, testicular dysfunction or disorders caused by adolescent mumps. Patients with primary testicular dysfunction, the testicles are usually small, soft, and the total plasma FSH is elevated. Although surgery can correct testicular dysfunction, the recovery is slow.

Azoospermia causes

  • Azoospermia mainly caused by a blockage in the epididymis, vas deferens, and ejaculatory ducts due to inflammation or injury.
  • Male endocrine disorders, lack of vitality, spleen and lack of blood can cause azoospermia.
  • Cystic dysplasia of the testis, trauma, inflammation, vascular disease and disturbance of scrotal temperature regulation causes azoospermia. Other factors include endocrine diseases, genetic, and nutritional disorders, radiation exposure and industrial hazards.
  • Testicular torsion and prostate surgery trauma can also affect the function of the testis leading to sperm production disorders.
  • Varicocele: this condition affects the blood supply to the testis leading to azoospermia.

Precautions and preventions method

  1. Avoid exposure to harmful radiations: Sperm is very fragile, and if you expose yourself to powerful electromagnetic radiation, it will affect your sperm production. The cause is only to prevent it.
  2. Minimise the consumption of cottonseed oil. The oil contains a component called gossypol, which inhibits sperm production. Therefore, excessive consumption of cottonseed oil will decrease sperm production.
  3. Quit smoking: Men who smoke more than ten cigarettes a day are more at risk of causing Azoospermia. The sperm quality is always weaker in heavy smokers than the non-smokers.
  4. Take medicine carefully: drugs that treat depression, malaria and certain sores can affect sperm production. Therefore, when you use such medicine, you should consult your doctor beforehand.
  5. Avoid intense running: intense running exercise will reduce sperm motility, so running should be appropriate, not too hard.
  6. Above all, urinating at night is a good habit, it will be great for sperm production.

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